Aside from the common cold, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common reason people miss work. 10-20% of people have it, and women are twice as likely as men to have it; however, only 15% of IBS sufferers actually seek medical help.
What is IBS?
It is a chronic condition of the digestive system that causes abdominal pain and an alteration in bowel function, including constipation or diarrhea. As such, IBS is called a functional bowel disorder. Although all the tissue is normal, there is an abnormality in the amount or the synchrony of the normal functioning. IBS’s exact nature is still being investigated, but it has proven to be an elusive disease to diagnosticians and scientists alike.
What causes IBS?
The exact cause is unknown. A number of theories have been proposed, but it is unlikely that any one of them is the cause; instead, it is more likely that IBS is caused by a confederation of causes that vary in terms of their influence on the gastrointestina ...
Nortriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) approved by the US FDA for the treatment of depression, but your doctor may also prescribe it for persistent pain, such as peripheral neuropathy, fibromyalgia, and postherpetic neuralgia. It may take days or weeks for tricyclic drugs to take effect, so it is not recommended for acute pain.
Antidepressants are mainly used for treating major depressive disorder, anxiety, and other mood disorders. They are often categorized based on their mechanism of action; each group/class of antidepressant work in different ways:
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI) – iproniazid, harmaline, moclobemide, selegiline;
Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitors (DRI)– bupropion, amineptine;
Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRI) – duloxetine, nefazodone, venlafaxine;
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) – alaproclate, citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline;
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Enhancer (SSRE ...