Contraindications and Cautions with Liver and Kidney Disease (Drugs Are Detoxified)
Drug-drug interactions can occur by adding a drug that interferes with either the normal detoxification actions of the liver or with clearance via the kidney. However, the liver and kidneys should also figure into concerns for single drugs when either of them is compromised.
Drug-drug interactions occur in healthy patients because of clashes between different drugs, and single drug toxicity occurs in patients who are not healthy because of liver and/or kidney disease.
Drugs are cleared from the body by the enzymes of the liver changing them into substances that can be excreted by the kidneys via urine. The kidneys, besides partnering with the liver in this mission, can also primarily clear certain drugs on their own. The liver, to a lesser extent that the kidneys, can even clear some drugs on its own through excretion into bile that essentially transports these drugs into fecal matter ...
The following are the four sets of vertebrae that make up the spine:
Cervical vertebrae (C segments): 8 segments of bone (vertebrae); C1-C8 spinal nerves.
Thoracic vertebrae (T segments): 12 segments of bone (vertebrae); T1-T12 spinal nerves.
Lumbar vertebrae (L segments): 5 segments of bone (vertebrae); L1-L5 spinal nerves.
Sacral vertebrae (S segments, fused): 5 segments of bone (vertebrae); S1-S5 spinal nerves.
All of the things that can go wrong at the spine to create lower back pain can also occur at any other spinal level, so the thoracic and cervical levels are no exception. Since pain in the thoracic spine, which consists of the T1–T12 spinal nerves, is similar in respect to the pathology, diagnosis, and treatment options for lower back pain (at L1–L5), this discussion will center on the upper vertebral column, particularly the cervical segments at C1–8.
What causes upper back and cervical (neck) pain?
As was discussed in the last part of thi ...