Voltaren gel (generic name: diclofenac gel 1%) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used to treat joint pain caused by osteoarthritis (OA) of the hands, wrists, elbows, knees, ankles, or feet. It is the first prescription topical gel approved to treat joint pain secondary to OA.
FDA Approval and Indications
Novartis was granted regulatory approval by the US Food and Drug Administration for Voltaren gel—the first topical treatment that patients can apply directly to their skin to relieve pain associated with osteoarthritis. As per FDA guidelines, it is only approved for “relief of the pain of osteoarthritis of joints amenable to topical treatment.” That statement elucidates that Voltaren gel may not work in areas covered with thick muscle, but that does not stop physicians from prescribing the drug to be used in areas other than the approved indications. Though it’s not illegal to use a drug off-label, medical providers should discus ...
The Treatment of Bladder and Kidney Infections
The GU system (genito-urinary) is involved with eliminating waste and clearing metabolized substances from the bloodstream. It is comprised of
ureters (tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder)
urethra (tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside world)
When infected, most commonly happening in the bladder (“cystitis”) and the kidney (“pyelonephritis”), in that order, antibiotics are necessary to limit suffering and damage. Damage to the kidneys, especially, can impact it function and even cause problems like hypertension and electrolyte imbalances; heart problems are therefore only one oversight away.
The bladder is only one urethra away from the outside world. In men this isn’t much of a problem, but in women, where the urethra is much shorter, it is. Exposure to bacteria can allow contact and colonization, via the urethra, lik ...