The Right Lower Quadrant
The abdomen can be separated into four quadrants:
LUQ (left upper quadrant)
LLQ (left lower quadrant)
RLQ (right lower quadrant)
RUQ (right upper quadrant)
The right lower quadrant
The right lower quadrant (RLQ) contains the following:
Right fallopian tube
Ascending large colon
The paired ureters (one in the LLQ and one in the RLQ) drain collected urine from their respective kidneys and travel under the floor of the abdomen to the pelvis, where they drain into the bladder. Drain is not the right word, because they exhibit undulating musculature that “milks” the urine down the line, which is known as peristalsis, and spits urine into the bladder every few moments.
Like all structures covered with the lining of the abdomen (peritoneum), this lining is very sensitive to distension, be it from a bubble distending a baby’s colon in ...
Abnormalities of the thyroid fall into two categories:
Hypothyroidism—This refers to under-functioning of the thyroid.
Hyperthyroidism—This refers to over-functioning of the thyroid.
Some other definitions
Goiter: This is the swelling of thyroid tissue and can occur because of hypothyroidism.
Thyrotoxicity: This is symptomatic hyperthyroidism with hyperactive metabolism.
Thyroxine is the thyroid hormone T4 and is made in the thyroid.
Tri-iodothyronine is the thyroid hormone T3 and is made in the thyroid.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone is also known as TSH and is made in the pituitary gland of the brain when stimulated by hypothalamic TRH.
TRH is the thyrotropin-releasing hormone and is made in the hypothalamus of the brain.
A tale of two hormones
Tri-iodothyronine (T3) is the active hormone of the body that controls the rate of metabolism, growth, and body temperature. T3 is broken down from thyroxine (T4), another thyroid ...