Abnormalities of the thyroid fall into two categories:
Hypothyroidism—This refers to under-functioning of the thyroid.
Hyperthyroidism—This refers to over-functioning of the thyroid.
Some other definitions
Goiter: This is the swelling of thyroid tissue and can occur because of hypothyroidism.
Thyrotoxicity: This is symptomatic hyperthyroidism with hyperactive metabolism.
Thyroxine is the thyroid hormone T4 and is made in the thyroid.
Tri-iodothyronine is the thyroid hormone T3 and is made in the thyroid.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone is also known as TSH and is made in the pituitary gland of the brain when stimulated by hypothalamic TRH.
TRH is the thyrotropin-releasing hormone and is made in the hypothalamus of the brain.
A tale of two hormones
Tri-iodothyronine (T3) is the active hormone of the body that controls the rate of metabolism, growth, and body temperature. T3 is broken down from thyroxine (T4), another thyroid ...
Inflammation and pain in the joints (arthritis) can be caused by many things, but the following are the main types of arthritis diagnoses:
Osteoarthritis (OA): This is known as “degenerative joint disease” and involves the wear-and-tear process of aging and joint use. This affliction constitutes 80% of arthritis diagnoses.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): This an autoimmune disease in which one’s own immune system attacks the joints. This is 10% of arthritis diagnoses.
The remaining 10% of arthritis diagnoses are the remaining types of arthritis, including psoriatic arthritis.
What happens in arthritis?
Generally, arthritis means inflammation, and inflammation over the long-term can be damaging and result in joint destruction. Pain can cause inflammation.
In osteoarthritis, which is age- and use-related wear-and-tear, there is osteophytosis, or the production of osteophyte. Osteophytes are commonly called bone spurs, which are b ...
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