Diabetes mellitus, an inadequate insulin response to the sugar in the system, only demonstrates how miraculous the working system is when not compromised. When this system is faulty, however, a person with diabetes must take on the jobs that his or her body won’t do; these include:
Determine the amount of sugar in the bloodstream;
Release insulin to metabolize that sugar into the cells for energy;
Fine-tune the sugar levels within a tight range to maintain alertness and even consciousness without overshooting, which can result in loss of consciousness, or undershooting, which can result in tissue damage.
It’s a lot easier when the sensitive cells in the pancreas do most of the work in the background. Unfortunately, this is not the case with diabetes.
The mechanics of stepping in to do the job the pancreas won’t do
To accomplish a semblance of normality, a diabetic person must determine his or her actual blood sugar based on a “sliding ...
The following are the four sets of vertebrae that make up the spine:
Cervical vertebrae (C segments): 8 segments of bone (vertebrae); C1-C8 spinal nerves.
Thoracic vertebrae (T segments): 12 segments of bone (vertebrae); T1-T12 spinal nerves.
Lumbar vertebrae (L segments): 5 segments of bone (vertebrae); L1-L5 spinal nerves.
Sacral vertebrae (S segments, fused): 5 segments of bone (vertebrae); S1-S5 spinal nerves.
All of the things that can go wrong at the spine to create lower back pain can also occur at any other spinal level, so the thoracic and cervical levels are no exception. Since pain in the thoracic spine, which consists of the T1–T12 spinal nerves, is similar in respect to the pathology, diagnosis, and treatment options for lower back pain (at L1–L5), this discussion will center on the upper vertebral column, particularly the cervical segments at C1–8.
What causes upper back and cervical (neck) pain?
As was discussed in the last part of thi ...