Health And Wellness

The Abdomen Part III: The Right Lower Quadrant

The Abdomen Part III: The Right Lower Quadrant
The Right Lower Quadrant The abdomen can be separated into four quadrants: LUQ (left upper quadrant) LLQ (left lower quadrant) RLQ (right lower quadrant) RUQ (right upper quadrant) The right lower quadrant The right lower quadrant (RLQ) contains the following: Right ureter Right ovary Right fallopian tube Appendix Small intestines Ascending large colon Ureter The paired ureters (one in the LLQ and one in the RLQ) drain collected urine from their respective kidneys and travel under the floor of the abdomen to the pelvis, where they drain into the bladder. Drain is not the right word, because they exhibit undulating musculature that “milks” the urine down the line, which is known as peristalsis, and spits urine into the bladder every few moments. Like all structures covered with the lining of the abdomen (peritoneum), this lining is very sensitive to distension, be it from a bubble distending a baby’s colon in ...

Viagra—Myths and Realities

Viagra Myths and Realities
Viagra (sildenafil) and other similar products (Levitra and Cialis) are in the class of drugs known as phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE5) inhibitors. When sildenafil failed to qualify as a product in the antihypertensive market, penile erection, one of its side effects, was used as an opportunity to market it as something that was never before offered, for a condition never medicinally treated before. Suddenly, impotence became a dysfunction called erectile dysfunction and dysfunction meant a medical abnormality that warranted treatment. The biochemistry Nitric oxide (NO) widens blood vessels, thereby increasing circulation, and also inhibits the breakdown of a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (CGM), which controls nitric oxide’s role in vasodilation, by phosphodiesterase. By inhibiting the breakdown of the controlling CGM phosphate, the nitric oxide can continue to vasodilate.  Viagra, a PDE5 inhibitor, took the market by storm when it was first made available. Beca ...

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